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The schools they founded, Les Philosophes de la Nature and The Paracelsus Research Society , popularized modern spagyrics including the manufacture of herbal tinctures and products. Alchemical symbolism has been used by psychologists such as Carl Jung , who reexamined alchemical symbolism and theory and presented the inner meaning of alchemical work as a spiritual path.

His interpretation of Chinese alchemical texts in terms of his analytical psychology also served the function of comparing Eastern and Western alchemical imagery and core concepts and hence its possible inner sources archetypes. In this sense, Jung viewed alchemy as comparable to a Yoga of the East, and more adequate to the Western mind than Eastern religions and philosophies.

The practice of Alchemy seemed to change the mind and spirit of the Alchemist. Conversely, spontaneous changes on the mind of Western people undergoing any important stage in individuation seems to produce, on occasion, imagery known to Alchemy and relevant to the person's situation.

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He claimed the material substances and procedures were only a projection of the alchemists' internal state, while the real substance to be transformed was the mind itself. Jung's work exercised a great influence on the mainstream perception of alchemy, his approach becoming a stock element in many popular texts on the subject to this day.

Main article: Alchemy in art and entertainment Alchemy has had a long-standing relationship with art, seen both in alchemical texts and in mainstream entertainment. Literary alchemy appears throughout the history of English literature from Shakespeare to J. Here, characters or plot structure follow an alchemical magnum opus. In the 14th century, Chaucer began a trend of alchemical satire that can still be seen in recent fantasy works like those of Terry Pratchett. Visual artists had a similar relationship with alchemy. While some of them used alchemy as a source of satire, others worked with the alchemists themselves or integrated alchemical thought or symbols in their work.

Music was also present in the works of alchemists and continues to influence popular performers. In the last hundred years, alchemists have been portrayed in a magical and spagyric role in fantasy fiction, film, television, novels, comics and video games. Look up alchemy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Alchemy. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alchemy. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Alchemy. Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Alchemy. Alchemy outline. Philosophy of science. Authority control. Categories :. Det er det eneste blad af sin art i Danmark, som er helliget international forskning inden for livsvidenskaberne.

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Kemi — alkymi : No comments. London : Marsh Agency. Swiss skeptics published their final discussion paper for The abstract says:. As consumers, we are rational in principle, but all too often irrational in practice: A number of so-called cognitive biases impact our rational decision-making.


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Our tendency for irrational decision-making is compounded by marketing, which is little more than the art of exploiting cognitive biases. Cognitive biases affect consumer behavior on two dimensions, preference genesis and preference order.

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Prevalent though they are, cognitive biases in consumer behavior are not inevitable. There are two general strategies for reducing the impact of cognitive biases: Debiasing and self-nudging. Kovic M. Over people from all walks of life attended to make parliamentarians, ministers and officials more aware that evidence matters to the public.

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Characteristic of rationalist precursors is their deployment of a priori or logical arguments. The miracle stories associated with the pre-Christian Apollonius of Tyana were debunked, not because the facts of the case had been checked, but because they seemed unreasonable. Although individual Christian miracle stories might be doubted, the genre as such was not subjected to the same all-out rejection as the pagan narratives. Christian miracles simply formed an integral part of ordinary life. Augustine scoffed at the astrologers for allegedly 8 See e. It is possible to be sceptical in both senses, most readily in different contexts.

David Hume would be a case in point. His arguments against causality in Treatise of Human Nature, first published are related to the Greek version of scepticism. His discussion of miracles in e. Loeb Classical Library 17, London: Heinemann Although there are isolated early examples of empirically based critiques against the belief in witches14, the turning point when predominantly rationalist arguments against controversial beliefs began to be supported by empirical investigation is the end of the Enlightenment.

The corpus of empirical methodologies that had been developed in the 17th and 18th centuries could be deployed not only in pursuit of new scientific theories, but also in the service of debunking. The locus classicus of early empirical debunking is the report written in against the practices of Anton Mesmer A regular flow of animal magnetism through the human body was crucial to good health, and conversely all kinds of illness were attributed to disturbances in this flow. Mesmer and his disciples carried out sessions in which the clients were allegedly magnetized. In some, the magnetizer passed his hands over the body of the client.

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Other modes of treatment involved an elaborate apparatus, the baquet. Such treatments typically provoked crises, which could manifest themselves as fainting spells and convulsions. The list of those who participated in the enquiry was thus an impressive one: on it were Benjamin Franklin, the astronomer Jean-Sylvain Bailly and the founder of modern chemistry Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier.

The commissioners decided to study the baquet with an array of measuring devices, they let themselves be magnetized, and tested the effects of the magnetic treatment on a variety of subjects. They suggested that there were considerable problems with accepting the existence of the alleged force. Children who were too young to understand what was being done to them did not show any effects.

Disbelievers in magnetism were also unaffected, as were subjects who were blindfolded and therefore unable to see that the mesmerist was treating them. On the other hand, similarly blindfolded patients who were told that they were being magnetized fell into convulsions, even when in reality nothing was done to them.


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The commission concluded that the observable effects were due to the touch of the magnetizer, aroused imagination and the imitation of the behaviour of other patients. The nineteenth century was the formative age of modern scepticism. Many nineteenth century sceptics continued the battle against mesmerism and its successors. Far from being shaken by the report of the royal commission, mesmerism had by the first half of the nineteenth century acquired a large following.

Among the reported effects of being magnetized were truly spectacular phenomena such as clairvoyance and out-of-body experiences. When the spiritualist movement gained momentum in the second half of the 19th century, further exotic phenomena were added to the repertoire.

Augustine provides a variety of rationalist and ad hominem reasons for not accepting astrology. Modern, empirically based sceptics would reject such testimony as anecdotal. Furness, J. Maskelyne, William Hammond, Joseph Jastrow and others — attacked the claims of the spiritualist movement and attempted to explain why belief in table rapping, spirit apparitions and ectoplasm was so wide-spread even among intelligent observers.

Testimony, such as this, staggers me. Have I been smitten with colour-blindness? Before me, as far as I can detect, stands the very Medium herself, in shape, size, form and feature true to a line, and yet, one after another, honest men and women at my side, within ten minutes of each other, assert that she is the absolute counterpart of their nearest and dearest friends, nay, that she is that friend.

The relatively clear description of the processes and the alchemical apparati, the methodical classification of the substances, mark an experimental spirit which is extremely far away from the weird and odd esotericism of the Greek texts. The theory on which Jabir supports his operations is one of clearness and of an impressive unity. In vain one would seek in the Greek texts a work as systematic as that which is presented, for example, in the Book of Seventy.

Renaissance and early modern Europe Further information: Renaissance magic and natural magic Page from alchemic treatise of Ramon Llull , 16th century. Decline Robert Boyle The decline of European alchemy was brought about by the rise of modern science with its emphasis on rigorous quantitative experimentation and its disdain for "ancient wisdom". Core concepts Mandala illustrating common alchemical concepts, symbols, and processes. Hermetism In the eyes of a variety of esoteric and Hermetic practitioners, alchemy is fundamentally spiritual.